1. Bullying and Victimisation in Schools: A Restorative Justice Approach. Morrison, Brenda 19 page s . February 2002. . http://www.aic.gov.au/documents/0/B/7/%7B0B70E4C9-D631-40D2-B1FA-622D4E25BA57%7Dti219.pdf

    This paper reports on a restorative justice program that was run in a
    primary school in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), but whose lessons
    have wider application.  The paper highlights the importance of schools as institutions that can foster care and respect and provide opportunities to participate in processes that allow for differences to be worked through constructively. It recommends that schools be resourced and supported to address bullying because of the debilitating effect of this problem.

  2. Bullying at School: What a Family Can Do. Office of the Education Ombudsman 2 page s . 2007. English Chinese Korean Russian Spanish Vietnamese Somali Cambodian . http://www.governor.wa.gov/oeo/publications/

    This pamphlet is a part of the Seven Resources for Parents and Schools, which is a series of publications for newcomer parents and families to American schools produced by the state of Washington.  Among the publications are resources that cover topics like resolving conflict at school, parent and student rights, participating in your child’s education, making the most of parent-teacher conferences, bullying at school, and the inner-workings of a school district.  Most of these materials are translated into Cambodian, Chinese, Korean, Russian, Somali, Spanish and Vietnamese. 

  3. Bullying Prevention Resource Guide. The Partnership for Families and Children , The Colorado Trust page s . 2008. English . http://www.bullyingprevention.org/

    This resource guide for schools, families, and community partners was designed to help communities across the nation take advantage of what has been learned over the past 3-1/2 years by the schools, districts, and nonprofit organizations participating in The Colorado Trust’s Bullying Prevention Initiative. 

    Some of the information in this guide may be particularly useful to refugee-serving agencies since one of the agencies that participated in this initiative is the African Community Center, which serves African immigrant and refugee youth in Denver.  Their contributions to the initiative, particularly on cultural competency, are particularly important as the field of bullying prevention lacks research on cultural competency.  

  4. Bullying: We Can All Help Stop It. Ontario Ministry of Education 5 page s . 2009. Arabic Chinese English Farsi Greek Hindi Italian Korean Polish Portuguese Punjabi Russian Somali Spanish Tagalog Tamil Ukrainian Urdu . http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/parents/bullying.html

    This multilingual guide is for parents of elementary and secondary school students that defines what bullying is and provides information for parents on what to do if their child is being bullied. It is directed at parents in Ontario, Canada, but most of the information is applicable to those in other areas.  Click on “Help in 22 languages” to access this guide. 

  5. Center for Preventing Hate (Web site). Center for Preventing Hate page s . 2010. English . http://www.preventinghate.org/

    The Center for Preventing Hate’s mission is to prevent and respond to bias, harassment and violence by providing education and advocacy in schools, colleges, government agencies, nonprofit organizations and communities by raising awareness and providing people with an understanding of the impact of bias and harassment and offering them the skills and strategies for respectful interventions.

  6. Creating a Refuge From Bullying. Swain, Lauren page s . 2006. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Provides examples of bullying experiences from teen refugees and explains steps they take to protect themselves while also sensitizing American teens to the struggles of their refugee peers. This 22-minute video was created by the Refugee Education for Awareness, Change, and Hope program (REACH), based in Colorado, as part of a curriculum designed to educate America's youth about refugee experiences and issues. Many young refugees experience trauma and fear in their native lands and then are taunted by their American classmates as they enter the schools because of their limited language skills, unique dress or food customs, and lack of knowledge about popular culture. Parallels are drawn between global leaders who oppress their people and school bullies who frighten classmates. Amjaad and Il Gude, an Iraqi boy and a Somali Bantu girl, describe being called a "terrorist" or "ugly" by classmates. American students provide dramatizations about bullying situations. Teachers and counselors describe steps for young newcomers to avoid situations where bullying can occur and encourage them to talk with trusted adult leaders if they feel threatened. (IP)

  7. Don't Hate Be Kind. Bureau of Refugee and Immigrant Assistance (BRIA) . 2010. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This DVD includes four Public Service Announcements that address the theme “Don’t Hate, Be Kind.”  They were created by NY’s Bureau of Refugee and Immigrant Assistance as a part of their work with their Governor’s Hate Crimes Task Force.   The task force focused on enhancing prevention and responses to hate crimes based on race, religion, sexual preference, country of origin, or native language.

  8. Education Week Spotlight on Bullying. Education Week 19 page s . 2010. . http://www.edweek.org/go/spotlights

    Bullying can be a serious and dangerous problem in schools and online.  This Spotlight focuses on how educators and policymakers are working to prevent bullying and the harmful experiences associated with it. 

  9. Identifying and Responding to Bias Incidents. Teaching Tolerance page s . English . http://www.tolerance.org/activity/identifying-and-responding-bias-incidents

    This short guides provides tips for being able to tell when and incident is motivated by some sort of bias, and it provides suggestions for resolving such incidents.

  10. Misdirections in Bullying Prevention and Intervention. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) 2 page s . unknown. English Spanish . http://www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov/adults/tip-sheets/tip-sheet-05.aspx

    This tip sheet is a part of the larger Stop Bullying Now campaign.  It briefly reviews misdirected intervention and prevention strategies and emphasizes the need for interventions to focus on changing school climate. 

  11. No Name Calling Week. . 2008. English . http://www.nonamecallingweek.org/cgi-bin/iowa/all/about/index.html#community

    This site seeks to focus national attention on the problem of name-calling in schools, and to provide students and educators with the tools and inspiration to launch an on-going dialogue about ways to eliminate name-calling in their communities. A resource kit is available for purchase, but numerous resources are available as free downloads, including lesson plans for grades K-8. Lesson 1 for middle level youth includes first person accounts of bullying as described by an Iraqi boy and a Thai girl, along with discussion questions.

  12. PACER Center's National Center for Bullying Prevention (website). Pacer Center, Inc. page s . 2007. English Spanish Hmong Somali . http://pacer.org/bullying/index.asp

    This Web site provides free handouts for English, Spanish, Hmong, and Somali speaking parents. Topics include talking to your children about bullying, talking with school administrators, record-keeping and bullying, and IEPs and bullying. Click on "Translated Content" at the bottom or on "Resources for Parents and Professionals" for many translated materials.

  13. Refugee Youth and Bullying Workshop Materials. Catholic Charities Atlanta 8 page s . 2010. English Nepali Russian . http://www.brycs.org/documents/upload/bullyingAtlanta.pdf

    The Refugee Parenting Program of Catholic Charities Atlanta frequently hosts workshops for refugee parents on various topics. One such workshop is on refugee youth and bullying and this document outlines what they cover and how they facilitate the workshop.  Workshop materials include a pre/post test in English, Nepali, and Russian.

  14. Resources for Examining Your School's Climate. Teaching Tolerance page s . 2007. English . http://www.tolerance.org/activity/examining-your-schools-climate

    This is a collection sof surveys and other instruments designed to reveal the true nature of prejudice and harrassment in schools. Inspired by the racist events in Jena, LA, this work also discusses attacks based on gender or other characteristics.

  15. School Training: A Strategy for Changing School Climate for Refugee Children. Children’s Crisis Treatment Center 47 page s . May 2010. English . http://www.healthinschools.org/~/media/Caring%20Across%20Communities/CCTC%20Final%20Products/CCTC%20Tamaa%20Guidebook.ashx

    This manual was designed to assist those working with war traumatized students including clinicians, teachers, and other school personnel. The resources examine the school climate, the refugee and resettlement experience, as well as identifying partners and funding, and offer actual classroom outlines, post-tests, and PowerPoint presentations.

  16. Spotlight on Bullying. Education Week page s . 2011. English . http://www.edweek.org/ew/marketplace/products/spotlight-bullying-2012.html

    This spotlight brings together a collection of articles on increasing school safety and student mental health, preventing and responding to cyberbullying, federal efforts to keep schools safe, schools' efforts to eliminate bullying and harassment, what parents can do to prevent bullying, and more. (Description from source).

  17. Stop Bullying Now!. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) page s . 2004. English Spanish . http://www.stopbullying.gov/

    This Web site provides information and resources on bullying awareness, prevention, and intervention.  It provides a collection of Tip Sheets, sections for different target audiences (such as teachers), a page for kids, and more.   

  18. Teens Against Bullying. PACER Center . 2009. English . http://www.pacerteensagainstbullying.org/

    This Web site is on national teen bullying prevention.  Though it is not specifically designed for refugee and immigrant youth, it may help newcomer youth who are teased and bullied.  It includes many audio files, so it may be particularly helpful to newcomers who are not strong readers. 

  19. Turning Social Media to Social Justice. Southern Poverty Law Center 68 page s . Spring 2011. English . http://www.tolerance.org/magazine/number-39-spring-2011

    This issue of Teaching Tolerance has a number of immigration related articles. Topics include the complex immigration debate and suggestions for educators to defuse the issue in class discussions, anti-Muslim bias, improving diversity in the classroom, teaching about human trafficking, addressing bullying and more. 


Bullying (Research)

  1. "Cultural Variations in Characteristics of Effective Bullying Programs." In Handbook of Bullying in Schools: An International Perspective, edited by S.R. Jimerson, S.M. Swearer, and D.L. Espelage.. Hazler, Richard J. , Carney, Jolynn V. 417-430 page s . 2010. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This chapter is designed to demonstrate how the general characteristics of bullying prevention programs need adaptations to be most effective within different cultures.

  2. An Exploration of Bullying as Experienced by Sudanese Refugee Youths. Clancy, Aislinn 145 page s . 2007. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    The purpose of this research is to explore the experience of bullying among Sudanese refugee youths living in Kitchener-Waterloo. Voices in the literature assert that bullying is experienced differently by different social groups. This study proposes to understand the phenomenon of bullying from the unique perspectives of Sudanese refugee youths. -Description from source

  3. Beyond Zero Tolerance: Restoring Justice in Secondary Schools. Stinchcomb, Jeanne B. , Bazemore, Gordon , Riestenberg, Nancy 123-147 page s . 2006. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Zero tolerance policies in secondary schools now embrace an array of misbehaviors varying widely in seriousness. Their utility has therefore come into question, especially because they do not address causal factors and generally maintain an emphasis on suspension and expulsion. In contrast, responses based on a restorative justice philosophy embrace stakeholders in an interactive process to repair harm by addressing the nature of the misbehavior and resulting damages. In an effort to examine the applicability of restorative justice principles to disciplinary policies in educational settings, the explorative results of a pilot project are presented. Quantitative outcomes indicate reduced behavioral referrals and suspensions. Qualitative descriptions likewise point toward positive directions. Overall, findings are supportive of employing restorative justice principles in response to school-related misbehavior, which could be combined with
    traditional practices (for more serious offenders) in a synergistic approach to restoring order in our schools, responsibility in our students, and, ultimately, hope in our communities.

  4. Bullying and Racism Among Asian Schoolchildren in Britain. Eslea, Mike , Mukhtar, Kafeela 207-217 page s . Summer 2000. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This article contains the results of a survey conducted to study bullying as experienced by various Asian groups in England. Interestingly, the study found that bullying was just as likely to be perpetrated by a member of another Asian ethnicity as by a white student.

  5. Bullying and Social Exclusion in Spanish Secondary Schools: National Trends from 1999 to 2006. Peguero, Anthony A. 657-677 page s . 2008. English Spanish This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Despite the interest in determining the severity of peer victimization in
    schools, resulting in many survey studies, few have explored the issue through representative samples in a country, and even fewer longitudinal studies have been carried out. In 1999, the first survey at a national-scale on school bullying was developed in Spain. The results provided detailed data of the forms of victimization experienced, done or witnessed by students, and their different incidence among boys and girls; along the different grade-years azand the type of school (state/private). A second study was carried out in 2006 in order to explore the possible changes in the incidence of bullying. The results presented here point to a decrease in the percentage of self-recognised victims and aggressors of certain types of bullying, while others
    remain in similar percentages after seven years. Immigrant students identify themselves more as victims compared to their autochthon schoolmates. Results are discussed in relation to the efforts to improve relationships in educational settings.

  6. Bullying and Victimization Among Native and Immigrant Adolescents in Norway. Fandrem, Hildegunn , Strohmeier, Dagmar , Roland, Erling 898-923 page s . 2009. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This study compares levels of bullying others, victimization, and aggressiveness in native Norwegian and immigrant adolescents living in Norway and shows how bullying is related to proactive and reactive aggressiveness. 

  7. Bullying Dynamics Associated with Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration Status. Scherr, Tracey G. , Larson, Jim 223-234 page s . 2010. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This chapter addresses the issue of bullying and bully victimization as a function of immigration status, ethnicty, and race.  Although all bully victimization is distressing, there may be a special pain that accompanies victimization that is based upon a child's familial ethnic or racial identity. This chapter explores the theoretical explanations for between-group bullying and offers a hypothesis from the social cognitive and social identity developmental literature.

  8. Centre for Multicultural Youth Submission to the Inquiry into the Impact of Violence on Young Australians. Centre for Multicultural Youth page s . October 2009. English . http://www.aph.gov.au/parliamentary_business/committees/house_of_representatives_committees?url=fchy/youthviolence/subs/sub044.pdf

    This article examines violence, the challenges faced by refugees resettling in Australia, and the effects of those challenges on refugees. Such challenges include the dangerous escape from a home country, time spent living in dangerous environments, physical and emotional harm from trauma and torture, loss of or separation from loved ones, and time spent in refugee camps and transition countries.

  9. Definitions of Bullying: a Comparison of Terms Used, and Age and Gender Differences, in a Fourteen-Country International Comparison. Robles-Pina, Rebecca A. , Norman, Paulette , Campbell-Bishop, Carrie 1119-1133 page s . 2002. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This article attempts to look at bullying in an international context by having children from 14 countries look at cartoon images and determine which images depict bullying. In this way, researchers were able to identify how bullying is described in different languages and which foreign words are cognates of the English term. In addition, researchers identified differences in perceptions of bullying among different age groups and genders.

  10. Immigrant Children in Austria: Aggressive Behavior and Friendship Patterns in Multicultural School Classes. Strohmeier, Dagmar , Spiel, Christiane 99-116 page s . 2003. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This paper focuses on inter-ethnic relationships between immigrant students in multicultural classes, providing data on both the negative and positive features of these relationships.  -From source

  11. McKay School Safety Program (MSSP): A Bilingual Bicultural Approach. In Handbook of Bullying in Schools: An International Perspective, edited by S.R. Jimerson, S.M. Swearer, and D.L. Espelage.. Robles-Pina, Rebecca A. , Norman, Paulette , Campbell-Bishop, Carrie 493-505 page s . 2010. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Due to a lack of school prevention programs that address the language and culture of Hispanic students, the purpose of this study is to address this gap by providing empirical evidence for a school safety prevention program that will increase the knowledge base of safety concepts for an at-risk, culturally diverse Hispanic population.  This will be done by describing the development, implementation, and evaluation of the bilingual, bicultural McKay School Prevention Program (MSSP) from various stakeholders' perspectives including students, parents, and educators.

  12. Muslim Voices in School. Sensoy, Ozlem , Stonebanks, Christopher Darius (ed.) 232 page s . 2009. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This book is a collection of readable, multi-faceted accounts of living Islam in relation to mainstream schooling in the West. 

  13. Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Mexican American Middle School Students: Including Acculturation as a Variable of Interest. Bauman, Sheri , Summers, Jessica 515-535 page s . 2009. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This study examined direct and indirect victimization and depressive symptoms in a sample of 229 Mexican American middle school students. The effects of gender, grade, and acculturation on both victimization and depressive symptoms were investigated. The moderating effect of receiving prosocial actions from peers was also explored. Approximately 23% of students in the sample were victimized. Females were recipients of more prosocial behavior, but receiving prosocial behavior did not moderate the influence of victimization on depressive symptoms. Significantly more depressive symptoms were reported by victims than by nonvictims. Anglo-oriented participants reported significantly more depressive symptoms than did their bicultural classmates. Indirect victimization made the largest contribution to a regression equation predicting depressive symptoms. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. Peer Victimization and Psychosocial Adjustment: The Experiences of Canadian Immigrant Youth. McKenney, Katherine S. , Pepler, Debra , Craig, Wendy 26 page s . 2006. English Spanish This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    The study explored the peer victimization experiences of immigrant youth in Canada.  More specifically, their involvement in general victimization and ethnic victimization (i.e., being bullied on the basis of one's ethnic background) was examined using an ethnically-diverse sample of elementary and high school students. 

  15. Peer Victimization in School: Exploring the Ethnic Context. Graham, Sandra 317-321 page s . 2006. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This article provides an overview of recent research on peer victimization in school that highlights the role of the ethnic context—specifically, classrooms’
    and schools’ ethnic composition. Two important findings emerge from this research. First, greater ethnic diversity in classrooms and schools reduces students’ feelings of victimization and vulnerability, because there is more balance of power among different ethnic groups. Second, in nondiverse classrooms where one ethnic group enjoys a numerical majority, victimized students who are members of the ethnic group that is in the majority may be particularly vulnerable to self-blaming attributions. The usefulness of attribution theory as a conceptual framework and ethnicity as a context variable in studies of peer victimization are discussed.

  16. School-Based Programs to Reduce Bullying and Victimization. Farrington, David P. , Ttofi, Maria M. 149 page s . 2009. English . http://www.campbellcollaboration.org/lib/download/718/

    This report presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of programs designed to reduce school bullying perpetration and victimization (i.e. being bullied). The authors indicate the pitfalls of previous reviews and explain in detail how the present systematic review and meta-analysis addresses the gaps in the existing literature on bullying prevention.

  17. Slurs, Stereotypes, and Student Interventions: Examining the Dynamics, Impact, and Prevention of Harassment in Middle and High School. Wessler, Stephen L. , De Andrade, Lelia L. 511-532 page s . 2006. This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Considerable research has focused on the scope and impact of bullying and harassment on middle and high school students. Previous findings suggest that a small percentage of students are the target of bullying and harassment, and they may experience long-term emotional damage. But, for researchers and practitioners, many questions remain about the content and forms, the impact, and the amelioration of bullying and harassment in schools. In this article, we as practitioners in the field of bullying prevention address these questions with findings from our fieldwork. Focusing on verbal harassment, we offer detailed descriptions of the content, forms, and motivations behind school bullying. Following this analysis, we shift our focus to discuss the anti-bias education programs we developed and implemented in response to these findings, and we highlight areas in which more research is needed.

  18. The Effects of Harassment and Victimization of Self-Rated Health and Mental Health Among Canadian Adolescents. Abada, Teresa , Hou, Feng , Ram, Bali 557-567 page s . 2008. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Using 1996/1997 to 2000/2001 data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, this paper examines the effects of harassment on self-rated and mental health status among Canadian adolescents aged 16–17 years. Forty-six percent of the children experienced harassment and victimization (verbal aggression, threat, and physical harm/assault) at school and 40% outside of school. Harassment at school, rather than otherwise, was associated with poor health status and higher levels of depression even when previous health conditions and socio-demographic variables were held constant. The relationship between harassment and mental health is particularly pronounced among girls, immigrant children and those living in single-parent households. Given the
    sizable proportion of adolescents as victims of harassment at school and its significant relationship with both health status and depression, the issue warrants serious public health attention through school-based intervention programs.

  19. Victimizing the Children of Immigrants: Latino and Asian American Student Victimization. Peguero, Anthony A. 186-208 page s . 2009. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Recent demographic changes have supported the emerging research on one of the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population: the children of immigrants.  Because victimization adversely affects youth development, understanding the victimization of the children of immigrants are of special interest because they are part of this country’s future—its parents, its labor force, and its voters. In addition, segmented assimilation theory guides this study’s examination about the victimization that the children of Latino and Asian American immigrants endure in U.S. public schools. Analyses, which draw from the restricted-use Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, indeed reveal some important results. For instance, first-generation immigrant students are afraid of the schools they attend. Furthermore, Latino third-plus generation immigrant students have increased risk of victimization by violence at school. This article also discusses the importance of understanding the schooling of the children of immigrants in the U.S. educational system.

  20. What Can Be Done About School Bullying? Linking Research to Educational Practice. Peguero, Anthony A. 38-47 page s . 2010. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    In this article, the authors review research on individual, peer, and school contributions that may be critical factors for enhancing efforts to address bullying among students. Methodological challenges are delineated, with an emphasis on how bullying is defined and assessed and the subsequent implications for bullying prevention and intervention program evaluation. The impact of school-based anti-bullying programs and the challenges currently facing educators and researchers in this area are discussed. The article concludes with a proposal for a broader, ecologically based model of school bullying based on the emerging literature.