Involving Refugee Parents in their Children's Education

  1. Actions Speak Louder Than Words - Or Do They? Debunking the Myth of Apathetic Immigrant Parents in Education. Ariza, Eileen N. page s . 2000. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    In American schools, it is believed that parent involvement is the primary factor affecting a child's educational success. Open lines of communication with the school and the teachers are greatly valued. The concerned parent is encouraged and expected to confer with the teachers, join the PTO (Parent/Teacher Organization), and become involved in the everyday routine of their children's school. Since these assumptions are held as truths, the parent who does not openly display this type of interest is considered apathetic, and is looked on with disdain. Misinterpretations can be construed when immigrant parents do not appear to involve themselves in their children's education because they are not aware of, do not practice, or are uncomfortable with, this cultural expectation. It is logically assumed that the parents are not interested in their child's academic progress. More often than not, this negative assumption of a lack of concern is incorrect. This article discusses the factors that could be cause for immigrant parents to appear to be unresponsive.

  2. Bridging Cultures between Home and School: A Guide for Teachers--With a Special Focus on Immigrant Latino Families. Kaiser, Tamara L. 172 page s . 2001. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This book focuses on how to meet the challenges of education in a pluralistic society, presenting the Bridging Cultures framework, which is designed for understanding differences and conflicts that arise in situations where school culture is more individualistic than the home value system. Six sections examine: (1) "The Bridging Cultures Framework" (e.g., what culture is, the dynamic nature of culture, individualism and collectivism, and strands of multicultural education); (2) "Parent Involvement: Recommended but Not Always Successful" (e.g., minority parent involvement, parent-school partnerships, and finding common ground); (3) "The Cross-Cultural Parent-Teacher Conference" (e.g., the tradition of parent-teacher conferences, using cultural knowledge to enhance communication, and improving parent-teacher conferences); (4) "Learning What Works" (e.g., understanding parents' points of view, evaluating the messages schools send, and developing closer personal relationships with families); (5) "Teachers as Researchers" (e.g., action research, inquiry and reflection, and ethnographic inquiry); and (6) "Conclusion: The Challenge of Coming Together" (e.g., the need for cultural knowledge, how Bridging Cultures fits into the big picture of school reform, and what is to be gained). An appendix presents the Bridging Cultures Project in brief. (Contains 191 references.) (SM)

  3. Bridging Cultures in Our Schools: New Approaches That Work. Knowledge Brief. Trumbull, Elise , Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie , Greenfield, Patricia M. 16 page s . 2000. English . http://www.wested.org/online_pubs/lcd-99-01.pdf

    This publication describes how teachers can begin to gain understanding of diverse students and families and their cultural values, behavioral standards, and social ideals. It presents specific examples of cross-cultural conflicts and illustrates strategies for resolving them. Data come from the Bridging Cultures action research project in California. The paper begins by describing a practical framework for understanding cultural differences, which includes the two contrasting value systems of individualism and collectivism. After elaborating on these differing perspectives, the paper presents examples of how some of the conflicts have played out across seven southern California classrooms and discusses strategies for resolving conflicts using the collectivist-individualistic framework. Some of the conflicts include independence versus helpfulness, cognitive versus social development, oral expression versus respect for authority, parents' roles versus teachers' roles, and personal property versus sharing. Easy ways to avoid conflict and promote harmony include making the classroom hospitable, engaging parents as resources, gauging how to support parent involvement, and understanding parents' ways of participating in school decision making. The paper concludes by discussing the issue of tapping community knowledge through ethnographic inquiry. (Contains 28 references.) (SM)

  4. Bridging Cultures: Teacher Education Module. Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie 168 page s . 2003. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    "Bridging Cultures: Teacher Education Module helps pre-service and in-service teachers be more successful in working with students and families from immigrant cultures. As a starting point for understanding differences between home and school cultures, the module offers a framework for teachers to engage in strategies that improve home-school communication and parent involvement - factors that are known to be associated with higher student achievement. The centerpiece of the module is training resources, including an outline, an agenda, and a well-tested three-hour script designed as a lecture-discussion with structured opportunities for guided dialogue and small-group discussion. Also included are overhead transparencies and handout masters; a discussion of the role of culture in education; an overview of the effects of the Bridging Cultures Project; and evaluation results of the author's use of the module in two sections of a pre-service teacher education course. Designed for use in one or two class sessions, the module can be incorporated in courses on educational psychology, child development, counseling psychology, and others that deal with culture in education. An adjunct book of supporting research, theories, and background information related to this module is also available." - Publisher's description Table of Contents Preface Introduction to the Bridging Cultures Project Facilitators Script The Effect of the Module on Pre-Service Teachers Overhead Transparency Handout Masters

  5. Building Collaboration Between Schools and Parents of English Language Learners: Transcending Barriers, Creating Opportunities. Waterman, Robin , Harry, Beth 24 page s . 2008. English . http://www.nccrest.org/Briefs/PractitionerBrief_BuildingCollaboration.pdf

    The primary goal of this brief is to discuss barriers related to parent involvement and offer concrete suggestions to guide school staff to transcend them.

  6. Building Culturally and Linguistically Competent Services to Support Young Children, Their Families, and School Readiness. Hepburn, Kathy Seitzinger 146 page s . May 2004. English . http://www.aecf.org/upload/PublicationFiles/HS3622H325.pdf

    Building Culturally and Linguistically Competent Services to Support Young Children, Their Families, and School Readiness, from the Annie E. Casey Foundation, promotes early childhood development and school readiness. This tool kit provides assistance for communities in building culturally and linguistically competent services and practices for young children and their families.

  7. Building Local Leadership for Change: A National Scan of Parent Leadership Training Programs. Henderson, Anne T. 32 page s . 2010. English . http://annenberginstitute.org/pdf/HendersonRpt.pdf

    This report identifies parent leadership training programs around the country and examines their structure, curriculum, and evaluation results.  A section of the report is on parent training programs aimed at immigrant families and families with limited English.  

  8. Dialogue Across Cultures: Teachers' Perceptions about Communication with Diverse Families. Joshi, A. , Eberly, J. , Konzal, J. 5 page s . 2005. English . http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ759616.pdf

    Presents findings on how teachers perceive parental involvement and their knowledge and practical use of culture to enhance learning. Culture is defined as a "dynamic, systematic, and historic construct" which encapsulates ethnicity and race as well as historical context, geographic location, gender, generation, age, religion, group memberships, and education level. Cultural differences challenge the effectiveness of parent/school communication where different belief systems and understanding of proper roles exacerbate basic language barriers and time/financial constraints. Forty primary school teachers in New Jersey were surveyed on two topics: parental involvement and knowledge of culture. Responders believed that communication should occur during conferences or through notes sent to the home. Time constraints resulted in the lack of parental communication. Cultural knowledge was limited to external manifestations such as food, dress, and holiday celebrations. Other issues, such as child rearing techniques, communication patterns, social values, and preferred learning methods, were not part of the teachers' cultural awareness.

  9. Dismay and Disappointment: Parental Involvement of Latino Immigrant Parents. Ramirez, A.Y.F. 93-110 page s . 2003. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Describes the institutional communication barriers faced by Latino immigrant parents as they deal with teachers and school administrators. Background information on effective parental involvement programs throughout the country indicates that parental involvement improves student performance. In contrast, interviews with parents in a predominantly Latino Southern California community illustrate the frustrations of immigrants after attempting communication with schools. Barriers are cited in three areas: (1) Communications: lack of translators at meetings and poor notification of key home/school events; (2) Expectations: conflict between the school’s expectation of parental involvement and job responsibilities, and also perceived lower teacher expectations from Latino children; and (3) Accountability: parental fears of retaliation if they expressed concerns or dissatisfaction with the school’s acceptance of poor quality student work. Suggestions include: translation services, family English literacy programs, parent centers, new family orientation workshops, home visits, and teacher incentives to increase their training in language and distinctions between Hispanic cultures.

  10. Educational Handbook for Refugee Parents. International Rescue Committee 82 page s . 2006. Burmese English French Somali Spanish . http://www.brycs.org/documents/upload/Educational-Handbook-English.pdf

    Acquaints refugee parents with the U.S. school system; school grade levels; expectations of students at each level in terms of academics and personal conduct; and parents' responsibilities in ensuring that their children meet the school system expectations. The International Rescue Committee encourages parents to meet with their children's teachers and frequently talk with their children about their schoolwork, as well as urge their children to pursue college. Step-by-step instructions clarify the procedures for choosing a college, the application process, and securing financial aid. An appendix details resources that address parents' specific needs: finding an interpreter; scheduling meetings with teachers or administrators; obtaining permission for a child's absence or late arrival; requesting a fee waiver or free lunch; and requesting resources for families learning English.

    The handbook is also available in Spanish, French, Somali, and Burmese.

  11. Educational Interventions for Refugee Children. Hamilton, Richard , Moore, Dennis 208 page s . 2004. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    By focusing on the education of refugee children, this book takes a rare look at the subject of increasing significance in current educational spheres.  Highlighting the many difficulties facing refugee children, the editors draw upon a wealth of international research and resources to present a broad, informative, and sensitive text. 

    The book indentifies school-based interventions, while suggesting methods and measures with which to assess the efficacy of such programs.  It also develops a useful model that provides a standard for assessing refugee experience, offering diagnostic indicators for: evaluating support services for refugee children; future avenues of research; practical implications of creating supportive educational environments for refugee children.

  12. Family and Intergenerational Literacy in Multilingual Communities. Weinstein, Gail page s . 1998. English . http://www.cal.org/caela/esl_resources/digests/Famlit2.html

    This Q&A reviews selected research, current policies, goals, models for program design, and curriculum approaches in intergenerational literacy work. It concludes with a discussion of promising practices in family literacy efforts. - Publisher's description

  13. How to Get Parents Involved: Bilingual Family Night. Robertson, Kristina 4 page s . 2007. English . http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/18800

    This brief article discusses how to host a successful school "family night" for immigrant and refugee parents and how to facilitate their involvement in their children's education.

  14. Illinois’ Refugee Children School Impact Grant Video Tool Kit. Illinois' Refugee Children School Impact Grant (RCSIG) Partnership, Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE), Illinois Department of Human Services, Chicago Public Schools page s . 2005. Arabic English Maay Maay Somali Spanish Swahili . http://www.isbe.net/bilingual/htmls/refugee_services.htm

    This toolkit includes In Our Country: Educating Newcomers in America and Welcoming New Learners: A Professional Development Tool. Schools struggle with the challenge of welcoming and adjusting to this entering population. Teachers and administrators must search for ways to make these new students feel safe and secure while instilling the standards of behavior and achievement expected from all. The new arrivals and their parents have no understanding of the American educational process, the school policies and resources, or what to expect from the classroom experience. Both school personnel and refugees have a profound need to understand one another. In order to help facilitate the integration of refugees into the classroom, the Illinois State Board of Education and the Illinois Department of Human Services/Bureau of Refugee and Immigrant Services have created these two videos.

  15. Immigrant Parents' Involvement in American Schools: Perspectives from Korean Mothers. Sohn, Soomin , Wang, Christine 125-132 page s . October 2006. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Investigates the successes and challenges of the American educational system as perceived by Korean immigrant mothers. Interviews with six Korean mothers provide anecdotal evidence that they are generally confident in the quality of the American education system, especially in the individualized and developmentally-focused approach that is in contrast to the regimented and standardized Korean educational system. However, four major areas of concern are noted: language barriers, cultural differences, discrimination issues, and limited teacher/school support. Although most of the Korean mothers had basic conversational English skills, each expressed frustration at the language barriers and the lack of interpreters. The cultural differences include the Korean belief in deferring to the teacher in educational decisions; the Korean custom that parents only speak to teachers when the child is experiencing a behavioral or academic problem; and the tendency to prefer verbal ambiguity as a sign of respect for the teacher’s authority. All of the mothers noted incidents of "subtle" discrimination such as harassment of Korean students by American children that went unpunished. Also, the Korean mothers felt that the schools and the teachers did not provide adequate time to discuss issues. The Internet may be used as a communication tool to increase teacher and peer awareness of Asian student culture.

  16. Immigrant Students and Secondary School Reform: Compendium of Best Practices. Spaulding, S. , Carolino, B. , Amen, K. 86 page s . 2004. English . http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED484705.pdf

    The best practices described in this compendium aim to inform the work of educators in secondary schools considering comprehensive reform, as well as the work of state policy makers, district leaders, and those generally interested in improving education for ELL students. A broad review of research and practice in the education of secondary English language learners (ELLs) in the United States has been synthesized into recommendations for best practices in six crucial areas: (1) Immigrant Students with Limited Formal Schooling; (2) Academic Literacy; (3) Parent Involvement; (4) Summer Programs; (5) Professional Development; and (6) Special Education. - Publisher's description

  17. Involving Immigrant and Refugee Families in Their Children's Schools: Barriers, Challenges, and Successful Strategies. Adult Learning Resource Center 13 page s . 2003. English . http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/rcd/bibliography/BE022699

    Outlines effective strategies for getting immigrant and refugee families involved in their children's schools. Among the many factors that cause some immigrant and refugee parents to be isolated from the community at large are limited English language skills, fear of violence in the community, demanding work schedules, family trauma, and lack of a welcoming atmosphere in the schools. Proven strategies that educational and social service agency practitioners can use to overcome these challenges, include: (1) partnering with community-based organizations and refugee resettlement agencies to provide translation assistance; (2) developing welcome videos and offering orientation sessions in different languages and in locations other than school that are familiar to refugee families; (3) producing parent handbooks in a variety of languages; (4) mentoring new families and conducting home visits with bilingual staff; (5) providing on-site programs to teach parents English language skills; (6) varying the time and day of parent activities to accommodate parents' changing work schedules; (7) hosting social events; and (8) providing in-service training of school personnel on effective methods of communicating with immigrant and refugee parents. In order for these steps to be successful, the principal wholeheartedly needs to support the school's outreach efforts.

  18. Involving Refugee Parents in their Children's Education. Bridging Refugee Youth and Children's Services (BRYCS) 10 page s . 2007 Spring. English . http://www.brycs.org/documents/upload/brycs_spotspring2007-2.pdf

    Many teachers and administrators across the United States are confused and concerned when they host parent-teacher conferences, "Open Houses," or other events for parents and find that few of their refugee parents attend. Sometimes, repeated failed efforts result in teachers and administrators concluding that the refugee parents in their district "just don't care." Yet, that is rarely the case. Research consistently shows that refugee parents do care about their children's education a great deal.

  19. Leyendo Juntos: New Directions for Latino Parents' Early Literacy Involvement. Ortiz, R.W. , Ordonez-Jasis, R. 110-121 page s . October 2005. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Early reading experiences in the home prepare children for normal literacy instruction when they enter school. Most practitioners and researchers support the need for educational initiatives for increasing parents' involvement in early literacy. However, there is less of a consensus about how to develop family literacy models for Latino families. Existing literature suggests that deficit-based theories have historically shaped many programs geared toward Latino families. As an alternative, the authors propose a sociocultural framework for family literacy programs. The model includes participants' cultural, linguistic, and social experiences, and respects family dynamics, ways of knowing, and perceptions of how literacy functions in life in real and meaningful ways. Recommendations are offered for developing programs to help parents and educators recognize and broaden the role of families in their children's learning and establish home-school relationships based on mutual respect and trust. - Publisher's description

  20. Limited English Proficient (LEP) Parent Involvement Project: A Guide for Connecting Immigrant Parents and Schools. Dixon, Janet 171 page s . 2001. Cambodian English Hmong Lao Russian Spanish Vietnamese . http://www.brycs.org/documents/upload/LEP-Parent-Involvement-Project-User-Guide.pdf

    "The LEP Parent Involvement Project was developed to be used in various adult education settings such as ESL classes, community-based organizations and parent groups for the purposes of helping parents and caretakers with limited English see themselves as active participants in their children's learning. In designing the materials we had the following goals in mind: 1. To build on what people already know from their experience as parents and caretakers in their own countries. 2. To help parents restore their own vision of themselves as first and primary teachers. (This vision is often lost in the immigration process.). 3. To create opportunities for parents to explore similarities and differences between their new and native countries and to build bridges that will link the two experiences. 4. To encourage parents to define and keep values and traditions, which are meaningful parts of their culture." - Publisher's description CONTENTS User's Guide Module 1 Bridging Cultures Module 2 Schools are Part of the Culture Module 3 Parents are Teachers Module 4 Discipline Module 5 Life at School Module 6 Families

  21. Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners With Disabilities in Urban Settings. Rodriguez, Diane 452-464 page s . July 2009. English . http://uex.sagepub.com/content/44/4/452.short?rss=1&ssource=mfc

    English-language learners with disabilities are capable of learning and are entitled to high-quality educational experiences. Their academic and social needs should be considered from multiple perspectives. To be effective, bilingual special education programs must implement best practices. This article highlights findings from research devoted to examining the influence of language on teaching and learning.(Description from source)

  22. Model Strategies in Bilingual Education: Family Literacy and Parent Involvement. McCollum, H. , Russo, A.W. . March 1993. . http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED365168.pdf

    This report offers administrators and teachers examples of many strategies used to work with parents of students with limited English proficiency (LEP).The report profiles nine exemplary sites, selected with the assistance of a panel of experts, which exhibit a wide range of parent involvement and family literacy programs. Five describe bilingual projects, including four that teach Spanish speakers and one serving Navajo families, while four describe projects serving mixed-language groups. - Publisher's description

  23. Multicultural Influences on Child-rearing Practices: Implications for Today's Pediatric Dentist. Ng, Man Wai 19-22 page s . 2003 January-February. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Describes how cultural practices, circumstances and beliefs (prolonged bottle-feeding, parenting styles, fatalism, language barriers, lack of money or knowledge) affect the dental health care practices of minority and ethnic children. Stresses that pediatric dentists must be aware of the importance of these factors. Example: Latino patients who adhere to the cultural values of "confianza" and "personalismo" may be more accepting of the recommendations of a denist who develops a warm personal relationship with them.

  24. Multicultural Partnerships Involve All Families. Hutchins, Darcy J. , Greenfeld, Marsha D. , Epstein, Joyce L. 160 page s . 2012. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This resource is meant for teachers and school leaders whose schools serve diverse student populations. Putting research into practice, the authors provide effective activity plans and strategies to raise cultural appreciation and improve school, family, and community partnerships for student success.  (Description from source)

  25. Parent involvement materials. Drum Publishing Group page s . 2010. English Karen . http://www.drumpublications.org/resettledownload.php

    These materials are based on the Parent Institute for Quality Education Program (PIQE) in California and are available in Karen through Drum Publications. Lessons include home-school collaboration; home, motivation and self-esteem; communication and discipline; academic standards; how the elementary school system functions; and the road to college.

  26. Partnering with Parents and Families to Support Immigrant and Refugee Children at School. Center for Health and Health Care in Schools 19 page s . June 2009. English . http://www.rwjf.org/en/research-publications/find-rwjf-research/2009/06/partnering-with-parents-and-families-to-support-immigrant-and-re.html

    This issue brief describes the impact made by growing numbers of immigrant and refugee students entering American classrooms.  The brief also explains how families play an important role in student mental health and how schools can work with newcomer families in a culturally-sensitive way to provide school-based mental health services.

  27. REACH Out to Parents for Student Success: A Toolkit for Educators. Iowa Statewide Parent Information Resource Center page s . 2006. English . http://www.iowaparents.org/getting-involved/toolkit

    The Iowa Parent Information Resource Center (Iowa PIRC) has developed REACH Out to Parents for Student Success: A Toolkit for Educators. This tool was designed to assist school leaders in creating a culture that welcomes, honors, and connects with families in ways that result in a joint effort to design strategies and actions for the classroom at school and at home to help each child maximize his/her learning. To do that, educators and parents must come to the table together and learn from each other. The results of that work will not look like what either group has thought of as “parent involvement” in the past. Nor will it look like what the school district down the highway is doing. Each community must look at the needs of their own children, families, and schools to determine the best approach to take to support their children and youth as learners both at school and at home. - Publisher's description

  28. Reading Rockets Family Guide. WETA 15 page s . 2002. English Spanish Hmong Somali . http://www.readingrockets.org/guides/readingrockets

    "The colorful bilingual Family Guide includes tips for helping children get the most out of reading as well as pointers on working with schools and teachers, ideas for using the public library, and more. Available in Spanish, Hmong, and Somali." - Publisher's description

  29. Reassessing Parent Involvement: Involving Language Minority Parents in School Work at Home. Daniel-White, Kimberly 11 page s . 2002 Spring. English . http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED466980.pdf

    Parental involvement has been promoted by politicians and educators as the cure all for academic ills in the American educational system. Programs have been funded and structured to involve all parents in schools in ways valued by middle class parents to the exclusion of language minority families, their language, and their culture. These middle class-based programs, which are founded upon a cultural deficit approach to parenting, do not provide Latino and other immigrant families with the tools they need to help their children and empower themselves. This paper describes an ethnographic investigation of home-based parent involvement as seen through the experience of a Costa Rican family in an African-American community in the northeastern United States. Using interviews, fieldnotes, and documents, this paper details a specific parental involvement effort initiated in a Latino home through a mini-grant offered by the school district. Citing literature from research on the use of funds of knowledgein school and the analysis of social contextual features in approaching the education of minorities, the paper analyzes the parental involvement effort and suggests changes in the ways future parental involvement efforts view parents and involvement. - Publisher's description

  30. School Success Tool-Kit: Tools To Help You Get Involved in Your Child's Education. People For the American Way Foundation 49 page s . 2003. English . http://www.brycs.org/documents/upload/SchoolSuccessToolkit.pdf

    This tool kit is part of a national campaign to help parents get more closely involved in their children's education. The campaign, "Success in School Equals Success in Life," asserts that all parents have the right to free, high quality education for their children regardless of race, gender, national origin, or disability status; all parents have the right to be involved in their children's education; all parents have a right to public schools that are properly maintained and adequately funded; all parents have a right to be informed of school policies; all parents have the right to send their children to safe, respectful public schools; and all parents have the right to know about any problems or challenges their children are facing and how they can work with the school to help their children succeed. The booklet presents information on visiting the child's school during school visits or open houses; dealing with disciplinary issues; the child and standardized tests; overcoming social, economic, and cultural barriers; school funding (a key to quality education); learning disabilities and special education; undocumented students and their rights; where to turn with concerns; and other resources. Questions to ask and/or issues to consider are presented for each section. (SM)

  31. Some Parents Just Don't Care: Decoding the Meanings of Parental Involvement in Urban Schools. Lightfoot, D. 91-107 page s . 2004. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Analyzes the language used in parental involvement study reports and shows how certain phrases perpetuate a "deficit" or "empty" perception of diverse or low-income families. An example article discusses highly educated, upper-middle-class parents and uses phrases such as "unpaid teachers' aides" and "tutors" providing "communication regularly." A contrasting article discussing low-income, linguistically and ethnically diverse families uses terms such as "at-risk" and repeatedly warns not to expect these parents to provide their children with educational resources, quiet learning environments, or financial support for the school. Another example cites an article that attempts to "empower" Central American immigrant parents with the assumption that they are "lacking" the power to help themselves. Careful scrutiny of language is needed to avoid stereotyping parental involvement programs or any social change programs.

  32. Southeast Asian Refugee Parents: An Inquiry Into Home-School Communication and Understanding. Blakely, Mary M. 43-68 page s . 1983 Spring. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Outlines the relationship between the school system and 32 families of Southeast Asian immigrant students in a middle-class Oregon town during the early 1980s. Background information on the Laotian, Cambodian, and Vietnamese immigrants is provided, as well as the current housing and employment information for the families. Home-to-school communication initially is conducted at first via family sponsors; then gradually the families develop their own informal communication network via word-of-mouth. Older children are often required to read and answer the written notices from the school. Public announcements (such as school registration announcements, immunization deadlines, bus schedules, holidays, and winter weather conditions) often are ignored by the immigrant population who do not read the newspaper or listen to news on the radio or television. Parental involvement at the schools is difficult and teachers express frustration when immigrant parents fail to attend conferences. The children do not bring schoolwork home for parents to see, and homework policies are not universally enforced for this student population. The immigrant parents indicate extremely positive opinions about their children's education and are pleased with the high quality of the teachers and facilities, enjoy the small-town atmosphere, and experience an overall sense of child safety. A bilingual program was instituted for several years at the elementary and junior high school levels, but most immigrant parents want to maintain focus on English language instruction and did not favor native language instruction.

  33. Strategies for Engaging Immigrant and Refugee Families. National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention 20 page s . 2011. English . http://sshs.promoteprevent.org/sites/default/files/root/strategies_for_engaging_immigrant_and_refugee_families.pdf

    This resource explains how to engage immigrant and refugee families in their children's education and health.

  34. The Importance of Presence: Immigrant Parents' School Engagement Experiences. Carreon, G.P. , Drake, C. , Barton, A.C. 465-500 page s . 2005. English . http://faculty.rcoe.appstate.edu/jacksonay/carreonetal.pdf

    In this article, the authors draw upon ethnographic methodology to report on the stories of three working-class immigrant parents and their efforts to participate in their children's formal education. Their stories are used as exemplars to illuminate the challenges immigrant parents face as they work to participate in their children's schooling. In contrasting the three stories, the authors argue that parental engagement needs to be understood through parents' presence in schooling, regardless of whether that presence is in a formal school space or in more personal, informal spaces, including those created by parents themselves. - Publisher's description

  35. Tips for Successful Parent-Teacher Conferences with Bilingual Families. Robertson, Kristina 5 page s . 2007. English . http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/19382

    This article provides tips for teachers when conducting parent-teacher conferences with immigrant and refugee families. 

  36. Two-Generation Strategies and Involving Immigrant Parents in Children's Education. Crosnoe, Robert 17 page s . August 2010. English . http://www.urban.org/publications/412204.html

    This report describes two-generation approaches to the education of young children from immigrant families that center on parental involvement in education. It focuses on Latin American and Asian immigrants, who make up the bulk of the immigrant population. (Description from source).

  37. Understanding Your Refugee and Immigrant Students: An Educational, Cultural, and Linguistic Guide. Flaitz, Jeffra 320 page s . 2006. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    Understanding Your Refugee and Immigrant Students is an excellent resource for educators who work with refugees and immigrants. This well-researched volume-including interviews with students from the profiled countries-provides a wealth of information about the specific schooling traditions, practices, circumstances, and expectations that follow these individuals to their new homes in North America and influence their learning experience. The author has focused her research on 18 countries that contribute a majority of refugees and immigrants to the United States: Afghanistan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Iran, Laos, Liberia, Peru, Somalia, Sudan, and the Ukraine. Each country profile features: statistics about the country, a historical synopsis, an overview of the county's official education policy, cultural perspectives, and a problem-solution section containing classroom strategies. The linguistic systems of the languages featured are also included for teacher reference. Also included is information about teacher-student relationships, discipline and class management, and appropriate non-verbal communication. This volume provides invaluable insight into refugee and immigrant students' cultural and educational backgrounds and gives instructors the tools to translate this information into effective classroom strategies. - Publisher's description

  38. Welcome to Our Schools Kit. New York State Office of Temporary and Disability Assistance, Bureau of Refugee and Immigrant Assistance (BRIA) page s . 2013. Arabic Burmese English Karen Maay Maay Russian Swahili Vietnamese . http://otda.ny.gov/programs/bria/wtos.asp

    The Welcome to Our Schools Kit is designed to ease the transition of refugee children into the elementary and secondary schools of New York State, and to empower their parents to be effective partners in the education of their children. This kit includes: 1) Curriculum for the Refugee Academy, Parent Programs, Professional Development, and Mini-Academies; 2) Welcome to Our Schools posters for posting and distribution to students; 3) USA puzzles for use in Module 4; 4) Beach ball for use in Module 1; 5) Bus Number stickers for use in Module 3; 6) DVDs for use in all Modules; 7) Handouts for use in all Modules; and 8) Pencils, crayons, and colored pencils for use in all Modules. The DVDs include 5 segments: 1) A Day in Elementary School; 2) A Day in Middle School; 3) A Day in High School; 4) Student Interviews; and 5) Parent Interviews.  Contact BRIA to order a copy. 

    Updated in 2013, the kit is designed to ease the transition of refugee children into the elementary and secondary schools of New York State, and to empower their parents to be effective partners in the education of their children. New resources include brochures for teachers, nurses, school counselors and parents, resources on domestic abuse, anti-bullying, and peer mentoring, as well as curriculum supplements.

  39. You Can Help Your Child in School. Minnesota Department of Education page s . 2001. Amharic Arabic English Hmong Nuer Oromo Russian Somali Spanish This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This instructional video is designed for schools, teachers, community groups, etc. as a tool for use with refugee and immigrant parents. The video serves as a brief overview to the many facets of school which might be new or different for refugees and immigrant parents, including suggestions for what parents might do at home to support school learning. 

    This video is available on DVD, along with its counterpart, "You Can Talk to Your Child's School."  Both videos come on one DVD and each DVD holds three languages (English, Arabic, and Nuer; English, Hmong, and Oromo; English, Russian, and Somali).  The Amharic and Spanish versions of the videos are only available in VHS.  Order the videos from the Minnesota Bookstore

  40. You Can Talk to Your Child's School. Minnesota Department of Education page s . 2001. Amharic Arabic English Hmong Nuer Oromo Russian Somali Spanish This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.

    This instructional video is designed for schools, teachers, community groups, etc. as a tool for use with refugee and immigrant parents. The video focuses on the willingness of school personnel to talk with parents. Sample conversations between parents and school staff are portrayed. 

    This video is available on DVD, along with its counterpart, "You Can Help Your Child in School." Both videos come on one DVD and each DVD holds three languages (English, Arabic, and Nuer; English, Hmong, and Oromo; English, Russian, and Somali). The Amharic and Spanish versions of the videos are only available in VHS. Order the videos from the Minnesota Bookstore.