The resources on the following Highlighted Resource List have been hand chosen by BRYCS staff to assist service providers in working with victims of trafficking. It includes the following topical areas:
Child Exploitation and Trafficking: Examining the Global Challenges and U.S. Response. Kendall, Virginia M. , Funk, T. Marcus 444 page s . December 2011. English . https://rowman.com/ISBN/9781442209800/Child-Exploitation-and-Trafficking-Examining-the-Global-Challenges-and-U.S.-Responses
This book covers the history and present-day reality of child sexual exploitation, as well as the interconnected web of domestic and transnational federal laws and law enforcement efforts launched. The book offers proscriptive and descriptive practical advice and reform proposals aimed at those involved at all levels in this difficult area.
Human Trafficking of Children Indicator Tool. Florida Department of Children and Families 4 page s . 2009. English . http://www.dcf.state.fl.us/programs/humantrafficking//docs/HumanTraffickingOfChildrenIndicatoTool0109.pdf
This tool describes possible indicators of child trafficking, outlines considerations for interviewing a child who may be a trafficking victim, and instructs what to do when child trafficking is suspected.
This article discusses how law enforcement identify potential victims and investigate the case, keeping in mind the delicate nature of working with trafficking victims.
Shepherd Movie Program Guide. U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops/Migration and Refugee Services(USCCB/MRS), Anti-Trafficking Program 9 page s . July 2015. English . http://www.usccb.org/about/anti-trafficking-program/upload/SHEPHERD-Movie-and-Discussion-Guide.pdf
This movie guide is intended to help facilitate discussions about human trafficking within local communities.
Trafficking in Persons in the United States. Bales, Kevin , Lize, Steven 161 page s . November 2005. English . https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/211980.pdf
This research examined human trafficking case studies in Southwest Florida, Chicago and Washingto, DC. The project evaluated ways to improve identification, investigation, prosecution and conviction of traffickers, good and bad examples of how victims have been approached and processed and ultimately had their situations resolved, how to determine victims' needs and ways to meet them, and how to find ways to bring together and improve the interaction of entities involved in these cases.
Trafficking in Persons Policy Paper. Catholic Relief Services (CRS) 20 page s . 2016. English . http://www.crs.org/sites/default/files/crs_tip_policy_paper_lr.pdf
This paper provides background information on
human trafficking, discusses the U.S. government, Catholic Church and CRS
response, and provides recommendations to the U.S. government for its work
in eradicating human trafficking globally.(Description from source.)
Trafficking Victims Protection Act Summary Resource Pack. Polaris Project page s . 2008. English . https://na4.salesforce.com/sfc/p/300000006E4S8BPMayCvVPSlRhm2BionQ2HiFHY=
This resource pack includes a fact sheet focusing on the key provision of the Trafficking Victims' Protection Act (TVPRA) and subsequent Reauthorization Acts from 2000-2008. Also included is a document describing the highlights of TVPRA 2008.
Training Manual to Fight Trafficking in Children for Labour, Sexual and Other Forms of Exploitation. UNICEF 52 page s . 2009. English . http://www.unicef.org/protection/Textbook_2.pdf
This text book provides the basics for taking action against child trafficking at policy and outreach levels. It details actions that can be taken to prevent trafficking, protect children from being trafficked, pursue traffickers and support trafficked children to rebuild their lives.
Fact Sheet: Labor Trafficking. Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) 2 page s . 2008. Chinese English Polish Russian Spanish . http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/fact-sheet-labor-trafficking-english
This fact sheet defines labor trafficking, examines the different forms of labor trafficking, how to identify victims, the health impacts, and the types of assistance available to victims.
ILO World Day Against Child Labor- June 12. International Labour Organization (ILO) page s . 2014. English . http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Campaignandadvocacy/wdacl/lang--ja/index.htm
Each year on June 12th, ILO focuses on a different aspect of child labor and draws attention to the plight of these children. Their website gives information on each year's theme, calls to action, and resources that accompany it.
The Department of Labor's Annual Report: Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs 1025 page s . 2014. English . http://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/child-labor/findings/
This report focuses on the efforts of certain U.S. trade beneficiary countries and territories to eliminate the worst forms of child labor through legislation, enforcement mechanisms, policies and social programs. The report presents: findings on the prevalence and sectoral distribution of the worst forms of child labor in each country; Country-specific suggestions for government action (since 2009); and individual country assessments that identify where Significant, Moderate, Minimal, or No Advancement has been made (since 2011).
Child Victims of Human Trafficking: Outcomes and Service Adaptation within the U.S. Unaccompanied Refugee Minor Programs. Chester, Hilary , Lummert, Nathalie , Mullooly, Anne 42 page s . July 2015. English . http://www.usccb.org/about/children-and-migration/upload/URM-Child-Trafficking-Study-2015.pdf
This report shares the results of an outcome study of all child victims of human trafficking placed into USCCB/MRS' URM programs between October 2004 and September 2011. All 12 URM programs were interviewed on how they have adapted their service model to meet the special needs of this population.
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: What Do We Know and What Do We Do About It?. U.S. Department of Justince, National Institute of Justice 20 page s . December 2007. English . http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/215733.pdf
This article published by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) of the U.S. Department of Justice, explores research into the organization of the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and discusses child victims of trafficking. The article also includes information on the effects of CSEC on victims and what measures can be taken to prevent its occurrence. Programs working with trafficked children may find this report useful.
Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. IOM/NRC Committee on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States 42 page s . 2013. English . http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2013/Confronting-Commercial-Sexual-Exploitation-and-Sex-Trafficking-of-Minors-in-the-United-States.aspx
This guide is designed for use by health care professionals and in settings where youth are treated for injury and illness or taught about prevention. The guide includes key terms, risk factors and consequences, barriers to identifying victims and survivors, current practices, and recommendations.
Effects of Federal Legislation on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC). Adams, William , Owens, Colleen , Small, Kevonne 12 page s . July 2010. English . http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/228631.pdf
This resource describes the results of a study funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to examine the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA) impact on the prosecution of commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) cases.
Fact Sheet: Sex Trafficking. Administration for Children and Families (ACF), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 2 page s . Chinese English Polish Russian Spanish . http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/fact-sheet-sex-trafficking-english
This fact sheet defines sex trafficking, examines the different forms of sex trafficking, who victims are and what they go through, and the types of assistance available to victims.
FAQ: Protecting Unaccompanied Children from Trafficking or Other Harm. Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service (LIRS) 5 page s . October 2015. English . http://lirs.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/LIRS_FAQTraffickingReunificationScreening_1510.pdf
This fact sheet explains the family reunification process for unaccompanied children, the Office of Refugee Resettlement's protection mechanisms for them, and offers an analysis of ORR shifts in policy from 2014 to 2015.
An Inventory and Evaluation of the Current Shelter and Services Response to Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking. ECPAT-USA , Shared Hope International , The Protection Project at Johns Hopkins University 244 page s . May 2013. English . https://d1qkyo3pi1c9bx.cloudfront.net/00028B1B-B0DB-4FCD-A991-219527535DAB/d0a7c6ec-dd01-4bb9-a193-1ecb8aa7a082.pdf
ECPAT-USA and Shared Hope International's 2012 Final Report intends to provide a snap shot of the current status of shelter and services delivery to support and guide the direction forward, properly protecting and serving America's trafficked youth.
Assisting Foreign Child Trafficking Victims. Division of Anti-Trafficking in Persons (ATIP) page s . 2013. English . https://mman.webex.com/mman/ldr.php?AT=pb&SP=MC&rID=53323982&rKey=6a0607d5786e60dd
This free online training from the Division of Anti-Trafficking in Persons (ATIP), covers assistance available through Health and Human Services for these victims and benefit options for children with an HHS Eligibility Letter. The training will be available until September 18.
Closing the Gaps: The Need to Improve Identification and Services to Child Victims of Trafficking. Godziak, Elzbieta , MacDonnell, Margaret 171-184 page s . 2007. English . http://issuu.com/georgetownsfs/docs/gozdziak-closing-the-gaps
This paper uses a case study approach to examine the inadequacies and service gaps in the system established in the United States to care for child victims of trafficking. The case study is discussed within a broader context of the evolution of the system of care available to child victims of trafficking, including the transfer of care of undocumented children in federal custody from the former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to the Office of Refugee Resettlement. (Description from source)
Fact Sheet: Child Victims of Human Trafficking. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Administration for Children and Families (ACF) 2 page s . 2009. English . http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/fact-sheet-child-victims-of-human-trafficking
This fact sheet discusses what the human trafficking of children looks like in the United States, the definition of human trafficking under U.S. federal law, how to report human trafficking, how to obtain assistance for a foreign child victim, who provides care for unaccompanied or separated children victims, and finally, what assistance is available for child victims.
Fact Sheet: Victims Assistance. Administration for Children and Families (ACF), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 2 page s . Chinese English Polish Russian Spanish . http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/resource/fact-sheet-victim-assistance-english
This fact sheet discusses benefits and services available to victims of human trafficking, temporary immigration status and relief, and lists additional resources for services.
Human Trafficking 101 for School Administrators and Staff. U.S. Department of Education , Blue Campaign , U.S. Department of Homeland Security 2 page s . August 5, 2014. English . http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/oese/oshs/humantraffickin101-schladmin.pdf
This resource from the U.S. Department of Education and the Blue Campaign gives basic information on human trafficking and how school staff can identify victims. It also gives tips about what to do if you suspect a student is being trafficking.
Human Trafficking Awareness for Educators. National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) page s . December 2015. English . http://traffickingresourcecenter.org/resources/human-trafficking-awareness-educators
This webinar discusses how human trafficking affects schools and students in the United States. It aims to equip education professionals with trafficking indicators and provide recommendations for how to respond to trafficking cases. It also covers risk factors that make students susceptible to exploitation, and identifies promising practices for prevention.
Human Trafficking of Children in the United States: A Fact Sheet for Schools. Department of Education 2 page s . 2009. English . http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osdfs/factsheet.pdf?utm_source=Migration+%26+Child+Welfare+National+Network+E-News&utm_campaign=da4fc4c8c0-MCWNN_E_News_061013&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_4a8508bf17-da4fc4c8c0-66940113
This fact sheet defines human trafficking, the extent of trafficking in the U.S., how it affects schools, and how to identify victims and report suspected incidents.
Not My Life: Human Trafficking Resources and Curriculum for Educators. Bilheimer, Robert page s . 2013. English . http://notmylifeactioncenter.com/pages/curriculums https://vimeo.com/75402833
This documentary on modern-day slavery that can be used to raise awareness about human trafficking in classrooms, on campus, and at special screening events. Not My Life resources and materials for educators and students include a DVD and educational curriculum. To preview, visit https://vimeo.com/75402833; password: nml.
Out of the Shadows: A Tool for the Identification of Victims of Human Trafficking. VERA Institute of Justice 7 page s . 2014. English . http://archive.vera.org/sites/default/files/resources/downloads/human-trafficking-identification-tool-summary.pdf
This resource from The Vera Institute of Justice provides a summary on their trafficking victim identification tool. The screening tool was developed, field tested and determined to be a reliable way of identify adult and minor victims of sex and labor trafficking.
Promising Practices: An Overview of Trauma-Informed Therapeutic Support for Survivors of Human Trafficking. Polaris Project , The Sanar Wellness Institute 16 page s . November 2015. English . https://polarisproject.org/sites/default/files/Sanar-Promising-Practices.pdf
This report from Polaris and the Sanar Wellness Institute, provides an overview of promising therapeutic support that can be used to enhance individual and group intervention for survivors of all forms of human trafficking.
Sex Trafficking of Minors: What Schools Need to Know to Recognize and Respond to the Trafficking of Students. National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE) 9 page s . 2014. English . http://center.serve.org/nche/downloads/briefs/trafficking.pdf
This brief outlines warning signs or "red flags" of possible victimization and increases educators understanding of commercial sexual exploitation.
The SOAR to Health and Wellness Training. Office of Trafficking in Persons page s . 2016. English . http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/endtrafficking/initiatives/soar
This program from HHS/Administration for Children and Families, was designed to help providers Stop, Observe, Ask, and Respond to human trafficking. The SOAR curriculum is grounded in the public health approach that 1) places human trafficking along a spectrum of inter-related violence 2) understands the ripple effects of trauma and 3) encourages cultural-specific intervention efforts.
The United States Unaccompanied Refugee Minor Program: Guiding Principles and Promising Practices. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops/Migration and Refugee Services (USCCB/MRS) 90 page s . 2013. English . http://us7.campaign-archive1.com/?u=4d488badbdb1e5aaccce9c569&id=75ec9746dd
This resource shares practice strategies, stories and tips from across the national program network. It also includes a chapter on program practice implications for victims of human trafficking. The e-book is available for free download however, tax-deductible donations are welcome!
Faces of Human Trafficking Video Series. U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime page s . January 2016. English . http://ovc.ncjrs.gov/humantrafficking/publicawareness.html
This series is intended to be used for outreach and education efforts of service providers, law enforcement, prosecutors, and others in the community. The series includes information about sex and labor trafficking, multidisciplinary approaches to serving victims of human trafficking, effective victim services, victims' legal needs, and voices of survivors. (Description from source.)
Finding Victims of Human Trafficking. Newton, Phyllis J. , Mulcahy, Timothy M. , Martin, Susan E. 93 page s . September 2008. English . https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/224393.pdf
This study responds to a congressional mandate to (1) identify victims and potential victims of domestic
trafficking; (2) determine whether victims have been identified as such by law enforcement; and (3) explore
differences between sex trafficking and unlawful commercial sex. It examines human trafficking experiences
among a random sample of 60 counties across the United States. (Description from source)
Human Trafficking Task Force e-Guide: Strengthening Collaborative Responses. Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) , The Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) page s . 2014. English . https://www.ovcttac.gov/taskforceguide/eguide/
This e-learning tool offers human trafficking task forces and allied professionals practical information on the creation and day-to-day operations of task forces, as well as essential knowledge they need to effectively identify and assist victims and to investigate and prosecute human trafficking cases.
Law Enforcement Response to Human Trafficking and the Implications for Victims: Current Practices and Lessons Learned. Clawson, Heather J. , Dutch, Nicole , Cummings, Megan 101 page s . December 2006. English . https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/216547.pdf
Little is known about how law enforcement agencies are organizing their response to human trafficking, or the capabilities of law enforcement to respond to the needs of trafficking victims. This exploratory project was designed to fill this gap by providing a clear perspective on the current state of law enforcement's understanding of human trafficking.
Meeting the Legal Needs of Child Trafficking Victims: An Introduction for Children's Attorneys and Advocates. Klain, Eva , Kloer, Amanda 39 page s . 2009. English . http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/domviol/pdfs/Child_Trafficking.authcheckdam.pdf
This report enables attorneys and advocates to recognize that child victims of other crimes may also be victims of trafficking; identify the key legal issues, remedies, and causes of action available to child victims of trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation; and locate and use existing in-depth resources on the issues addressed in this guide.
Prosecuting Human Trafficking Cases: Lessons Learned and Promising Practices. Clawson, Heather J. , Dutch, Nicole , Lopez, Susan 94 page s . Septemeber 2008. English . https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=245913
This study examined the effectiveness of existing U.S. Federal and State legislation in providing prosecutors with the tools needed to gain convictions of those charged with human trafficking, defined as "the use of force, fraud, or coercion to exploit a person for profit."
Resource Book for Law Enforcement Officers on Good Practices in Combating Child Trafficking. International Organization for Migration (IOM) 174 page s . 2006. English . http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/index.php?main_page=product_info&products_id=153
This resource book provides good practices, innovative techniques and recommendations recognized by an international team of experts. It discusses the legal background of combating child trafficking; and discusses good practices on age assessment and identification of the child; investigative methods; interviewing techniques; and cooperation between law enforcement authorities and NGOs/social service providers. The book is from a project entitled "Comprehensive Training for Law Enforcement Authorities Responsible for Trafficking in Children/Minors" implemented by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in Vienna.
SART Toolkit: Resources for Sexual Assault Response Teams. National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC) page s . 2017. English . https://ovc.ncjrs.gov/sartkit/
A collection of resources from the National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC) that service providers may use to formalize, expand on, or evaluate their interagency responses. This toolkit can help organizations customize their outreach to victims and provide culturally specific services.
Understanding and Improving Law Enforcement Responses to Human Trafficking: Final Report. Farrell, Amy , McDevitt, Jack , Fahy, Stephanie 256 page s . December 2008. English . https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/222752.pdf
This report is based on a national survey that found local law enforcement agencies perceive human trafficking as rare or nonexistent in their communities; however, agencies that serve larger communities are more likely to view human trafficking as a pervasive problem, particularly sex trafficking. The national survey was distributed to a national random sample of approximately 3,000 State, county, and municipal law enforcement agencies in the U.S.
When Federal and State Systems Converge: Foreign National Human Trafficking Victims Within Juvenile and Family Courts. Carr, Bridgette A. 77 page s . Winter 2012. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.
This article highlights the concerns facing foreign national children who are both victims of human trafficking and under the jurisdiction of juvenile and family courts. It also explains the federal benefits available to these children and identifies the best practice approaches for juvenile and family court systems to increase identification of and support for foreign national child trafficking victims.
Building Child Welfare Response to Child Trafficking. Center for the Human Rights for Children, Loyola University Chicago , International Organization for Adolescents (IOFA) 117 page s . 2011. English . http://www.luc.edu/media/lucedu/chrc/pdfs/BCWRHandbook2011.pdf
This resource explains the gaps within the child welfare system in accurately identifying and treating child victims of trafficking and explains the system in place for serving these children.
Child Human Trafficking Victims: Challenges for the Child Welfare System. Fong, Rowena , Cardoso, Jodi Berger 311-316 page s . 2010. English This resource may be free from your local library or purchased from the publisher.
"This article examines commercial sexual exploitation of children; differentiates the needs and problems between child prostitution and victims of human trafficking; reviews and critiques current treatment practices; and summarizes challenges and successes in working with child victims of human trafficking, offering practice and policy recommendations." Description from source
Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking/Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: Resources for Treatment Foster Care Agencies. Foster Family-based Treatment Association (FFTA) 20 page s . July 2014. English . http://www.imis100us2.com/ffta/AsiCommon/Controls/BSA/Downloader.aspx?iDocumentStorageKey=7d94b93c-dc90-4ef0-8203-bfc257a43796&iFileTypeCode=PDF&iFileName=Domestic%20Minor%20Sex%20Trafficking
This document includes recommended resources and addresses four key areas: (1) screening and assessment; (2) specialized training for TFC staff and foster parents; (3) cross-agency collaboration and safety; and (4) need for outcome measures unique to the DMST/CSEC population.
Emerging Practices Within Child Welfare Responses. United States Department of Health and Human Services 2 page s . May 2013. English . https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/assets/briefing_spotlight_b.pdf
Professionals in the child welfare system are in a position to lead efforts in strengthening the identification, prevention, and early intervention in child trafficking cases. This briefing provides a non-exhaustive list of examples of efforts already underway in the United States, spotlighting simple and low or no cost solutions that child welfare agencies have put into practices.
Evaluation of Comprehensive Services for Victims of Human Trafficking: Key Findings and Lessons Learned. Caliber Associates 182 page s . June 2007. English . https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/218777.pdf
In collaboration with OVC, NIJ conducted an in-depth evaluation of sites funded by the Office of Victims of Crime (OVC) Trafficking Victims Protection Act Grant Program for Victim Services. The evaluation findings show that the three Comprehensive Services initiatives made significant progress toward achieving the goals of improving service provision for victims of human trafficking.
Guidance to States and Services on Addressing Human Trafficking of Children and Youth in the United States. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) 16 page s . September 2013. English . http://www.nrcpfc.org/downloads/wu/ACYF_Guidance_Child_Youth_Trafficking.pdf
This resource contains guidance to States and service programs to build greater awareness and better response to the problem of child trafficking. It includes the following sections: Introduction; The Scope and Nature of Child Trafficking; Understanding the Needs of Victims; Coordination; Screening and Assessment; Intervening to Meet the Needs of Trafficking Victims; Emerging Shelter and Service Considerations; Child Welfare Responses; and Additional Assistance Available to Child Victims of Human Trafficking.
Human Trafficking of Children: Participant Guide. Child Welfare Training Academy at the University of South Florida 24 page s . 2010. . http://centerforchildwelfare.fmhi.usf.edu/preservice/stopgap/participantguides/Core%20109_HumanTraffickingofChildren%20_PG_July%202013.pdf
This Child Welfare Pre-Service Training aims to familiarize participants with Florida's statutory definition of child trafficking, identify the major types of child trafficking, describe potential child traffickers, identify potential child trafficking victims and learn what to do when you suspect child trafficking.
Human Trafficking Prevention Education: Guidance for Implementation of Youth Programs. University of Dayton, Human Rights Center , Ohio Attorney General Human Trafficking Commission 37 page s . August 2016. English . http://www.ohioattorneygeneral.gov/getattachment/b9c18117-5136-4538-b115-b5105a550fdf/Human-Trafficking-Prevention-Education-FINAL.aspx
This resource is intended to be used by educators and community members who seek to educate youth about human trafficking. The guide covers recommended procedures, basic educational standards, tools, resources, training materials, and a list of recommended curricula and outreach programs.
Let's Talk: Developing Effective Communication with Child Victims of Abuse and Human Trafficking. Mitchels, Barbara 35 page s . 2004. English . http://www.childtrafficking.com/Docs/unicef_2004_handbook_lets_talk_a5_eng.pdf
This resource serves as a practical handbook for social workers, police, and other professionals working with child victims of abuse and human trafficking. This is a very useful resource for new and experienced staff in developing sensitive and effective communication skills when with very vulnerable children and young people. It gives broad communication skills advice for helping children feel listened to and assisting in the process of their recovery. It also provides detailed guidance and sample language for staff to use when undertaking child protection interviews.
Preparing Staff to Work with Trafficked Youth. Family and Youth Services Bureau page s . March 2011. English . http://ncfy.acf.hhs.gov/news/2011/03/preparing-staff-work-trafficked-youth
This toolkit includes resources from The Polaris Project, including a slideshow targeted to service providers, which provides background information on trafficking and addresses the challenges to serving trafficked youth and adults, such as identifying and finding victims, and a downloadable assessment form to help service providers better identify and support victims.
Supporting the Social Integration of Trafficked Young People. Cody, Claire 1 page . August 2012. English . http://www.fmreview.org/young-and-out-of-place/cody.html
Many leading organizations working with trafficked young
people bring survivors together to meet, share their own stories
and access support and advice. Young people need to be
shown that their future is not dictated by their past. (Description from source)